Guide #7 Treaty of Brundisium - 40 BC (The Octavian Chronicles)

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The most notable victims were Marcus Tullius Cicero , who had opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in his Philippicae , and Marcus Favonius , a follower of Cato and an opponent of both triumvirates. They were added to the list because they had been the first to condemn Antony and Lepidus after the two allied.

In fact they both survived. Octavian's colleague in the consulate that year, his cousin and nephew of Caesar , Quintus Pedius, died before the proscriptions got underway. The Caesarian background of the Triumvirs made it no surprise that immediately after the conclusion of the first civil war of the post-Caesar period, they immediately set about prosecuting a second: Caesar's murderers Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had usurped control of most of the Eastern provinces, including Macedonia , Asia Minor , and Syria.

After the victory, Antony and Octavian agreed to divide the provinces of the Republic into spheres of influence.


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Octavian—who had begun calling himself " Divi filius " "son of the divinity" after Caesar's deification as Divus Julius "the Divine Julius" and now styled himself simply " Imperator Caesar"—took control of the West, Antony of the East. As a result, the province of Cisalpine Gaul was absorbed into Italy.

Narbonese Gaul was absorbed into Gallia Comata, creating a unified Gaul, and was thus taken over by Antony. Octavian took over Spain from Lepidus. Lepidus himself was left with nothing, but was offered the prospect of control over Africa. The excuse given for this was a report that Lepidus had been traitorously negotiating with Sextus Pompey. If he were proved innocent he would have Africa. Antony remained in the east to bring Brutus and Cassius' former territories under triumvirate control.

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The reduced role of Lepidus is evident in the fact that far fewer coins depict him from this point on, and a number of triumviral edicts are issued in the names of Antony and Octavian only. Octavian's land redistribution caused widespread tensions, as farmers were dispossessed in favor of soldiers. Antony's brother Lucius Antonius , who was serving as Consul, stood up for the dispossessed farmers. The conflict led to the Perusine War , in which Lucius gathered an army of supporters to challenge Octavian.

The Second Triumvirate

He was encouraged by Mark Antony's wife Fulvia. He finally surrendered in exchange for clemency. The outcome was that Lepidus was confirmed as governor of Africa, acquiring six of Antony's legions, leaving Octavian as the sole power in Italy, with his own loyal legions in control.

When Antony's supporter Calenus, governor of Gaul, died, Octavian took over his legions, further strengthening his control over the west. At around the same time, Antony's wife Fulvia died. Octavian arranged for Antony to marry his sister, Octavia , as a symbol of the renewed alliance. The economic problems caused by the eviction of established farmers were exacerbated by the control of Sextus Pompey over Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.

Pompey's navy regularly intercepted Roman shipping, leading to problems with the grain supply. In 39 BC Antony and Octavian decided to negotiate an agreement to stop the piracy. According to Appian, Sextus hoped to replace Lepidus as the third triumvir, but instead he was confirmed in possession of the islands by the Pact of Misenum , in return agreeing to stop his piracy. According to one source Sextus' second-in-command Menas advised him to kidnap and kill Antony and Octavian while they were celebrating the deal at a dinner on Sextus's flagship, but Sextus refused.

Despite the agreement, conflicts continued. Octavian accused Sextus of continuing to raid Italian towns. In the following year Octavian attempted to take Sicily by force. He was defeated twice in naval battles off Messina. He then arranged a meeting with Antony, who was planning to attack Parthia and needed troops.

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Everyone there are warm hearted and have great work ethic. This favored position of Nikopolis may help to explain the apparent confusion of Pliny and Tacitus concerning the precise legal status of the city. If it was not strictly a Roman colony, it seems to have been easy enough to confuse it with one.

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Surviving sources list the Ambracians, Leukadians, Akarnanians, Amphilochian Argives and the Aetolians as taking part in the city's foundation. Our sources for the foundation include: Dio According to Strabo Strabo 7. The published proceedings of this conference NICOPOLIS present a wealth of detail concerning different aspects of the city's archaeology and historical development conveniently collected into one volume.

JONES , pp. The games are referred to as "ludos Counting inclusively, this means they were held every four years. As the official war memorial of Nikopolis, a city which was itself a "living" victory monument, this building may have been the most important structure built by Octavian outside of Italy. It was cer- tainly the most important monument associated with the new city. Amazingly, Octavian's Campsite Memorial still exists. And equally amazing is the fact that few people know of its existence though it was discovered 75 years ago and almost no one realizes its rich historical significance.

Here is also to be found Octavian's first official state- ment on the Actian War in an important inscription that has yet to be properly published. Long before the Augustan historians and poets com- pleted their versions of the battle in the straits, this monument was built to deliver the message of the New Order. The message is propaganda, to be sure, but it comes directly from the mind of Octavian shortly after he found himself alone in power.

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As such, it stands among the earliest sources we possess for the Actian War, and represents a find as im- portant as a fragment from Augustus' lost memoirs. We begin, therefore, with Octavian's Campsite Memorial at Nikopolis. After determining as much of its original appearance as its surviving remains allow, we consider the evidence it preserves for the immense ships that fought in the Battle of Actium. We then examine the design of the monument in an attempt to discover the messages both blatant and subtle that it was intended to convey.

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And last, but not least, we use the monument and the evidence it preserves to reassess some im- portant historical problems associated with the battle and the foundation of Nikopolis. Above all, however, our primary goal is to make known an important Augustan monument and begin the discussion of the com- 29 This memorial had burned to the ground by the time Strabo composed his account of the region 7.

Concerning the date of Strabo's account, cf. For Octavian's refurbishing of Apollo's sanctuary on the Actian promontory, cf. We do not intend to resolve all the problems raised by the Campsite Memorial, but if we, at long last, stir up interest in a monument too long neglected, then our study will have fulfilled its intended purpose. Midway along the coastal route from Greece to Italy, Nikopolis provided a welcome break for travelers on their way to the West. The entrance to the gulf offered excellent anchorages and there was plenty for tourists to see on both sides of the straits.

To the south lay the old temple of Apollo Aktios, newly refurbished after the capture of Egypt. A whole set of warships had been dedicated there by Octavian but they and their boathouses had burned to the ground within a generation of their dedication. Other sights could be found in the new city to the north of the straits. Of all the new buildings, the theater, gymnasium and shrines, the memorial most closely associated with the founder and architect of the Principate could be found where his tent had stood during those fateful summer days of 31 B.

Large and impressive, it sat on a hill to the north of the city and was clearly intended to serve as the premiere memorial of the founder's "Victory City.